A concise introduction to the basics of open access, describing what it is (and isn't) and showing that it is easy, fast, inexpensive, legal, and beneficial. The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder consent, and many authors, musicians, filmmakers, and other creators who depend on royalties are understandably unwilling to give their consent. But for 350 years, scholars have written peer-reviewed journal articles for impact, not for money, and are free to consent to open access without losing revenue. In this concise introduction, Peter Suber tells us what open access is and isn't, how it benefits authors and readers of research, how we pay for it, how it avoids copyright problems, how it has moved from the periphery to the mainstream, and what its future may hold. Distilling a decade of Suber's influential writing and thinking about open access, this is the indispensable book on the subject for researchers, librarians, administrators, funders, publishers, and policy makers.
Wildlife is unique among natural resources that is owned by the public and administered by government. Much has been said and seen in the media about human-wildlife conflicts and evidenced by public demonstration in small scale agricultural environments. This book is a testimony of conflicts in Mbuvori sub location of Embu District, Kenya which explains the extent and types of damage caused by elephants that are the major crop pests in the area. The truth is that the perpetuated human wildlife conflicts have far reaching implications to the lives of the community. The very sad fact is that the community does not derive much benefits from revenue collected from wildlife. A major setback to the conservation and sustainable utilization of the nature resource. The study provides baseline information on impacts of elephants on crop production in the small scale farming systems in Mbuvori sub location. The information is useful to planners and policy makers for areas that are adjacent to conservation areas in designing effective methods of controlling the raiding elephants. There is need to share benefits arising from wildlife with communities.
Indian Railways, the world's third largest network and one among the largest employers, has been contributing to the industrial, economic and social development of the country. It faced a severe financial crisis in 2001 which resulted in abnormal hike in freight rate. This coupled with lack of customer oriented services, led to giving up of its market share to roadways. However, certain measures taken to control cost and increase revenue brought IR from the acute financial crisis to a noticeable success which is technically known as 'turnaround'. The present study was undertaken in a situation where there has been a disagreement in respect of factors that contributed to turnaround. Research, being a fact finding enquiry, concentrates on identifying these factors.SR, the fifth largest zone in IR, with its lines spread over the southern states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu, stood an exception to the general phenomenon of increased surplus. So, the researcher makes an attempt to study to what extent the turnaround measures have improved the financial performance in SR. The book is a must read for academicians, administrators, beaurocrats, policy-makers and aspiring researchers.
Agriculture is the backbone of Nepal having its one-third share in GDP and employs two-third population. Nepal is adopting most liberal trade policies among South Asian countries but facing decade long trade stress in lieu of that almost one-third population living in two-third of districts are food deficit. This study has been quantifying impacts of trade liberalization by using extended form of multi-market model for rice, wheat, maize and potato markets in 2010. Altogether ten policy scenarios under five broad categories are simulated and respective results are compared with base period. Impact indicators of food self-sufficiency, economic surplus, GDP growth, food trade balance, self-reliance, and government revenue are expected to be far better in partial policy reforms even world price increases,supply shock happens or global food demand increases but net-food consumption and net-welfare improvement are far better under moderate to full trade policy reforms. Study recommends tetra-track policies for reducing food insecurity trade stress in the WTO regime.
It is a boldly held view that the assignment problem in a federal set up is less challenging than problems witnessed in intergovernmental fiscal transfers (both grants and revenue sharing). The issue of challenges to intergovernmental fiscal transfers and possible options of channeling them did not, however, attract much attention as it deserves and this work is a slight attempt to fill the gap thus created. It is especially challenging in countries such as Ethiopia where states are substantially dependent on the federal government to cover the lion s share of their expenditures. The book argued that the prevalent vertical fiscal imbalance of the states in Ethiopia could not only be rectified through fiscal transfers unless we sought some other options, including revisiting the provisions of the Federal Constitution, to boost the fiscal capacity of the states. The book is especially important for any organ interested in the functioning of the Ethiopian fiscal federalism as compared to other three federal countries (Germany, India, and Nigeria) and policy makers that tend to formulate effective grant and revenue sharing formulas.
Forest has been the source of livelihood to the people and an important source of revenue in Assam notwithstanding the fact that its share in GSDP of the state has been declining steadily over the years. Though a major part of the total forest cover is under state property right regime, Assam has lost a considerable size of its forest cover in the recent years. The large scale unabated encroachment in the reserved forests by the new settlers, people displaced by floods and ethnic clashes in the state and immigrants, the excessive dependence of the people on the forests, illegal timber extraction, conflict between the people in the vicinity of the forest and state agency have paved the way for degradation of forest cover. This book investigates the question of deforestation in the reserved forests of Assam in the light of current forest policies in vogue besides measuring dependence as well as perceptions of the people towards forests using inputs from the field study. The book should be of interest to forest policy planners, students of forest economics and especially those interested in the protection, conservation and management of forests of the state in general.
The book investigates empirically mechanisms behind the recent widespread use of employee stock options and share repurchases in corporate financial management. Exploring through econometric models a sample of large U.S. technology corporations in the period between 1997 and 2005, it documents complex links between stock option plans, payout policy and other key financial characteristics of these firms. The models highlight the interplay between the interests of long-term shareholders, optionholders and speculative investors and provide estimates of joint effects of option dynamics and repurchases on stock returns, undervaluation and option plans on payout policy as well as risk taking and revenue growth on payoffs to shareholders and optionholders.
Scientific Essay from the year 2012 in the subject Economics - International Economic Relations, , language: English, abstract: The current global economy is characterized by extensive globalization of the markets. The accompanying international trade affects industrial nations and developing countries in differing degrees. The analysis of trade policy in developing countries can, in the process, be analyzed using the same tools as those for developed countries, namely industrial na-tions. Earlier development stages of trade policy amongst developing countries were character-ized by protectionism and an orientation towards a domestic market which consequently led to a weak internationalization of these countries. It was not possible to decrease the distance between the classical industrial states since the industrial states themselves, in the context of the first phase of globalization, were able to significantly advance on a global scale.As a result of the rejection of protectionism by means of changing political structures and the accompanying liberalization, it was therefore possible, in the early phases of globaliza-tion, whose origins lie in the end of the 19th and the start of the 20th century, for several developing countries to successfully advance in the wake of the general dynamic of inter-nationalization. The share in the world good's market; the volumes in direct investments and the inflows of portfolio capital were able to increase amongst these groups of countries, albeit not for all countries to the same extent. As a result, the majority of developing countries today are tightly embedded in world trade. Moreover, these countries were capable of registering export quotas of 20% and 30%. The gap between the so-called OECD countries could be largely made up for. In the course of early globalization, the OECD countries also dynamically developed with the consequence that many developing countries were, in turn, able to benefit from these global economic interactions. Today, the export revenue of OECD countries with develop-ing countries represents 25%. This is a 40% increase within the last 20 years. The foreign trade of developing countries with OECD countries, on the other hand, ac-counts for merely 60% of the total foreign trade of developing countries in our present day. At the same time, there has been an emergence of foreign trade diversification in favor of exporting industrial goods by courtesy of developing countries which amounted to as much as 84% in 1996 which in 1996 accounted for as much as 84%.
Research Paper (undergraduate) from the year 2013 in the subject Economics - Case Scenarios, grade: A, , course: Fiscal and Monetary Policy Analysis and Management, language: English, abstract: This paper attempts to test the validity of public welfare spending theories (compensation theory, system theory, median voter theory, group theory, Incrementalism and some variants of public choice theory) in the context of Thailand. The study make use of GDP, previous welfare spending, increases in population, tax revenue, openness to trade, democratic government, labour union, trade association, urbanisation and welfare spending as a share of GDP over the period 1982 - 2007. We found strong and positive link between globalisation, GDP, tax revenue, labour union and previous welfare spending with Thailand welfare spending. These increases will invariably call for increased access to education, health care systems and other related welfare spending which means, the revenue base has to be increased through tax. We therefore recommend Thai Government to undertake reform in the tax system to broaden the tax net. Also, land and property tax systems ought to be reformed as well to extend coverage. We also recommend the stimulation of domestic demand in Thailand to reduce the over reliance on the international market which exposes countries to high end risks and uncertainties. The falling population growth in Thailand could also spell a doom to Thai's labour supply. Thailand currently relies on immigrant workers from neigbouring countries like Myanmar, Laos, Vietnam and Burma. As the economic conditions in these countries improve, these immigrant workers might return. This will create a shortage in the supply needs to cater for the ever increasing demand propelled by the continuous industralisation of the Thai economy. Policy decision makers should factor this in their subsequent decision to mitigate this effect in the near future.